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Information Analysis and Big Data Analysis


 The following assignment is based on the discussion on the information and big data analysis. This discussion involves two separate questions with two parts each to evaluate the approaches used by business organisations.

Question 1

Variation in Decision-making at each management level

For the businesses the decision making varies at each management level. This involves various aspects to meet the organisational goals and objectives. The differences in the decision making are discussed as below:

Management Hierarchy

As per the study by Ansoff et al. (2018) it has been stated that the business have been divided into different managerial levels that carry distinctive roles and responsibilities. In regards to the managerial hierarchy it could be noted that the low level, middle level, and top level employees tend to be divided in a hierarchy of authority and on the basis of the performance of the tasks assigned in the organisations. This means that the pyramid is formed as illustrated below to pyramid allow employee to take decisions as per the roles and respective duties allocated within the workplaces (Boundless Business 2020). 

Decision Structure – structured/semi/unstructured

The decision making process incorporated by different managerial levels consist of three types of decision making that are structured, semi structured, and unstructured decisions. At each managerial level the classification is based on the basis of the judgment and evaluation of the situation that helps identify the problem. The higher level employees could work with unstructured decision making where the insights on the problems are taken to cater the issue (Lu et al. 2016). On the other hand, the middle level employee take part in the decision making process with the senior level employee to work on a part of the problem within the accepted policies. This allows the semi structure decisions to be followed by the managerial level. The structured level of decision making is to work on the definite procedures within the accepted policies involving lower level management (Lu et al., 2016).

Figure1: Managerial levels and hierarchy (Source: Boundless Business 2020)

Decision Type: Strategic/Tactical/Operational

The strategic decision making involves the major actions and influence taken in to account for the businesses. As it contributes directly with the goals the long-term implications for the practices are considered through strategic decision making. The strategic decisions are usually unstructured thus; partial decisions could be taken by the higher level management. The tactical decisions involve the implementation of the strategic decisions for the structuring of the workflow or the establishment of the distribution channels (Pérez-Álvarez et al. 2018). Thus, the middle level management is involved for the tactical decisions. The operational decision involve day to day activities for the decision on business judgment helping managers with information systems to focus on process of managerial decision making involving lower level management (Bruel 2016).

Usefulness and main functions of EIS, DSS, and TPS in relevant management levels in decision making

The organisations consist of EIS, DSS, and TPS system at the strategic level; management, the management level and operational level respectively. The systems are useful at each level to provide functional areas with benefits on assisting workers to manage sales, marketing, manufacturing, finance, accounting, human resources, and production. The following figures discuss the functions and usefulness of each system respectively (Andry, Agung, and Erlyana, 2016). 

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Figure 3: Information processing systems (Source: Andry, Agung, and Erlyana, 2016)

Question 2

Discussion on the information system terms with examples of application in the business and society

The following are the information system terms that have been discussed as below:

Cloud Computing

As per the study by Rittinghouse and Ransome (2016) it has been discussed that the cloud computing refers to the availability of the computer resources used for data storages and computing power. This means that the management prefers the use of cloud computing as data centers of the delivery of services with efficient networking. In businesses with increase in the use of technology, the storage of data could be in the form of e-mails through Google's Gmail. This has allowed companies from any device to easily access the files and important documents through Google via the internet.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

The AI is considered as a broader term for machine usage to carry out tasks pertaining with smart practices. For the businesses in the present time the machines allow the accessibility of data to be easier allowing the market to increase safety and convenience. For improved processes AI has been incorporated in attendance machines for businesses recording human face recognition and biometric system (Siddiqui et al. 2020).

Machine Learning (ML)

The concept of ML refers to the learning and adaptability of the machines through enhancement in the experiences (Xin et al. 2018). This means that the process of analytical model building allows the businesses to work with statistics, operational research and insights to create a secure place. A business example could be of the tracking of monetary funds through Paypal that uses machine learning concept to protect people from money laundering.

Deep Learning (DL)

The concept of DL refers to the huge neutral network build with several layers of the processing units (Xin et al. 2018). This helps in taking benefits of the computing power to improve training techniques allowing individuals to learn complex patterns of the large amount of data. An example in the business for DL is the use of speech recognition systems that help in accessing calendars, video conferences, and print documents.

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The assignment worked on assessing the importance of information systems and use of big data in the present business market. It has been noted that with an increase in the technology the need for using information system has increased allowing businesses to use large amount of data efficiently.


Andry, J.F., Agung, H. and Erlyana, Y., 2016. Management Information System for Order Fulfillment: A Case Study. In Proceeding of 9th International Seminar on Industrial Engineering and Management (Vol. 9).

Ansoff, H.I., Kipley, D., Lewis, A.O., Helm-Stevens, R. and Ansoff, R., 2018. Implanting strategic management. Springer.

Bruel, O., 2016. Strategic sourcing management: Structural and operational decision-making. Kogan Page Publishers.

Lu, J., Han, J., Hu, Y. and Zhang, G., 2016. Multilevel decision-making: A survey. Information Sciences, 346, pp.463-487.

Pérez-Álvarez, J.M., Maté, A., Gómez-López, M.T. and Trujillo, J., 2018. Tactical business-process-decision support based on KPIs monitoring and validation. Computers in Industry, 102, pp.23-39.

Rittinghouse, J.W. and Ransome, J.F., 2016. Cloud computing: implementation, management, and security. CRC press.

Siddiqui, M.F., Siddique, W.A., Ahmedh, M. and Jumani, A.K., 2020. Face Detection and Recognition System for Enhancing Security Measures Using Artificial Intelligence System. INDIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 13(09), pp.1057-1064.

Types of Management | Boundless Business  2020. Available at: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-business/chapter/types-of-management/ (Accessed: 6 June 2020).

Xin, Y., Kong, L., Liu, Z., Chen, Y., Li, Y., Zhu, H., Gao, M., Hou, H. and Wang, C., 2018. Machine learning and deep learning methods for cybersecurity. IEEE Access, 6, pp.35365-35381.

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