Respiratory System and the Processes involved in the Defence Against Infection

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Respiratory System and the Processes involved in the Defence Against Infection

Respiratory system

Human beings require energy to perform a daily task effectively, and the oxidation process plays a vital part in it. The usage of oxygen for a human being is indispensable, and they require an organ to remove carbon dioxide gas from their bodies (Nemkov et al., 2018). By the help of the respiratory system, a human can inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. Nose and mouth are the starting point of a respiratory system connected with airways through which oxygen travels to the lungs (Santacroce et al., 2020). The air passed from the pharynx (throat) went through the larynx (voice box) protected by the epiglottis. Epiglottis is an essential part of a respiratory system as it closed down and restrict the entrance of food and drink into the lungs.

The windpipe is the airway divided into two smaller parts such as left bronchi and right bronchi. By the help of trachea (airway), air travels into lungs, further divided into lobes (Mote, Awari, and Bharambe, 2018). The right lung has three lobes while the left has only two lobes; moreover, the left lung is smaller than the right lung because it shares some space with heart. Bronchi have smaller branches which form the smallest airways known as bronchioles. This part of the respiratory system is commonly called a bronchial tree because it resembles the upside-down tree (Leslie and Wick, 2018). Cartilage is used to connect large airways while lungs tissues maintained the smaller airways of the respiratory system. Alveoli are presented toward the end of bronchiole, which worked as air sacs (Carr, Altisheh, and Zitt, 2017). Moreover, capillaries are found on the alveolar walls, and there is a small obstacle that is useful to transfer oxygen from alveoli and obtain carbon dioxide from the blood.


Figure 1 Respiratory System

Source: (Leslie and Wick, 2018)

Defence against infection

It is noted that a normal human being inhales up to 5000 gallons of air per day which also contains dangerous particles. Dust, bacteria, soot and viruses are also inserted into the lungs through the air intake (Manjón et al., 2020). Therefore it is essential to protect the lungs from an injection; thus, the respiratory system protects itself by its defence mechanisms. The process of the respiratory system against infection is essential, and the help of Cilia protects it. They protect cells that are linked with the trachea. Cilia formed a dense layer known as mucus to protect the airways from infection (Kuek, and Lee, 2020). The mucus layer is vital for protecting the lungs from infection as they trap severe infectious and contagious microorganism and prevent them from entering into the human's lungs. Cilia is essential as its speed of beating is more than 1000 times per minute which eventually moves mucus 1 centimetre upwards (Iyawe, and Omorogiuwa, 2018). In this way, pathogens and other dangerous particles are trapped can easily be coughed out and protect the injection's respiratory system.

Moreover, alveolar macrophages, usually found on the alveoli are also used to protect the lungs from dangerous infection. Alveolar macrophages protect alveoli because mucus is too thick, and it can slow down the oxygen exchange (Allard, Panariti and Martin, 2018). Therefore, alveolar macrophages found dangerous particles inside the lungs, swallow them, which eventually kills the bacteria or virus. It is noted that more neutrophils are engaged in the fight against the macrophages due to respiratory infection (Tan and Weninger, 2017). However, if a serious infection has attacked the lungs, more white blood cells are recruited, killing the pathogens.

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References

Allard, B., Panariti, A. and Martin, J.G., 2018. Alveolar macrophages in the resolution of inflammation, tissue repair, and tolerance to infection. Frontiers in immunology, 9, p.1777.

Carr, T.F., Altisheh, R. and Zitt, M., 2017. Small airways disease and severe asthma. World Allergy Organization Journal, 10(1), p.20.

Iyawe, V.I. and Omorogiuwa, A., 2018. The Respiratory System Has a Resourceful Defense Organization; A Review. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 22(11), pp.1871-1876.

Kuek, L.E. and Lee, R.J., 2020. First contact: the role of respiratory cilia in host-pathogen interactions in the airways. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 319(4), pp.L603-L619.

Leslie, K.O. and Wick, M.R., 2018. Lung Anatomy. In Practical Pulmonary Pathology: A Diagnostic Approach (pp. 1-14). Elsevier.

Manjón, I., Ramírez-Andreotta, M.D., Sáez, A.E., Root, R.A., Hild, J., Janes, M.K. and Alexander-Ozinskas, A., 2020. Ingestion and inhalation of metal (loid) s through preschool gardening: an exposure and risk assessment in legacy mining communities. Science of the Total Environment, 718, p.134639.

Mote, D., Awari, P. and Bharambe, V., 2018. A study of fissures and lobes of lungs from clinical perspective. Pulsus J Surg Res, 3(2), pp.41-44.

Nemkov, T., Reisz, J.A., Xia, Y., Zimring, J.C. and D'Alessandro, A., 2018. Red blood cells as an organ? How deep omics characterization of the most abundant cell in the human body highlights other systemic metabolic functions beyond oxygen transport. Expert Review of Proteomics, 15(11), pp.855-864.

Santacroce, L., Charitos, I.A., Ballini, A., Inchingolo, F., Luperto, P., De Nitto, E. and Topi, S., 2020. The human respiratory system and its microbiome at a glimpse. Biology, 9(10), p.318.

Tan, S.Y. and Weninger, W., 2017. Neutrophil migration in inflammation: intercellular signal relay and crosstalk. Current opinion in immunology, 44, pp.34-42.

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