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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration


In human body there are various organs and if any organ gets disturb or collapsed then the whole human health can be at risk and it can also lead to dead (Al-Bedah et al., 2019). Each organ has its part to play like the function of kidney is to remove excess amount of fluid and waste from the body, function of heart is to pump blood, and the function of the lungs is to provide oxygen in the whole body through respiration (Marlina et al., 2019). The aim of this report is to define the aerobic and anaerobic type of respiration and this report also highlight the type of respiration use by a sprinter and a marathon runner.


Respiration is the process by which the cells present in the human body obtains energy through taking the oxygen in and releasing the carbon dioxide. All of the living entities perform the respiration to set out energy through which they stimulate their living (Sclocco et al., 2019). In respiration the energy is set out in a proper manner and that’s the reason that most of the set out energy is then utilized for performing cellular activity. There are three basic types of respiration process the internal, external, and cellular respiration (Scholkmann & Wolf, 2019). In internal respiration the gas gets exchanged between blood and tissue (Wibking, 2020). In external the gas gets exchanged between the air that gets inhaled and the blood (Gudkov et al., 2019). Then in cellular respiration the glucose in the body gets transform into energy and there are further two types of cellular respiration the first one is aerobic respiration that happens in the existence of oxygen and the second one is anaerobic respiration that happens in the nonexistence of oxygen (Brenner, 2019). The process of respiration goes through some steps that are as following:


In this stage the glucose goes through chemical conversion and in the end the glucose gets transferred into two molecules of pyruvate. During this conversion the ATP gets formed and it is a type of molecule that is present in all of the human body (Grandjean et al., 2016).

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Pyruvate oxidation

Then from the step of glycolysis each of the pyruvate shifts into the mitochondrial matrix which is said to be the inmost section of the mitochondria. Over there it gets changed into two molecules of carbon that are bound to the acetyl CoA. Then after that the carbon dioxide gets set out and the NADH gets formed (Meiser et al., 2016).

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Citric Acid Cycle

The acetyl Coa that was formed in the previous step joins with a molecule consisting four-carbon and then it went through a chain of reactions that results in the regeneration of the beginning molecule consisting four carbons. In this step ATP, NADH, and FADH2 gets developed and the carbon dioxide gets set out (Canovas & Shock, 2016).

(Caudarella et al., 2003)

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Oxidative Phosphorylation

The NADH and FADH2 that got developed in the previous stage releases their electrons in the chain of electron transferring and then both of them gets back to their original forms that are NAD and FAD. As the electron moves down in the chain the energy started to get set out and it also force the protons to leave the matrix that develops a gradient. At the last of the electron conveying chain the oxygen allows electrons and taken in proton to develop water (Xu et al., 2019).

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Aerobic Respiration

Living entities require energy to perform activities and this energy arrives from glucose. In case of human beings the glucose gets obtain through eating and in plants the glucose gets obtain through the process of photosynthesis (Giridharan, 2018). The living entities transfer the glucose and oxygen in the cells named mitochondria that are small organelles that are present in the cell cytoplasm. Then in the mitochondria the oxygen and glucose incorporate together and form a chemical reaction that reaction is called aerobic respiration and its function is to form energy that gets flow into the cells (Shintaku & Guttridge, 2016). In the aerobic respiration the gases gets exchanged in which oxygen gets engaged and the carbon dioxide gets set out (Abatenh et al., 2018).  After the process the water, carbon dioxide, and energy get formed in which the water and carbon dioxide are said to be the waste products and about 38 ATP’s are developed in the form of energy (Li et al., 2017).

Anaerobic Respiration

In the anaerobic respiration the energy gets created without the existence of oxygen as sometimes the body doesn’t get able to transfer oxygen to the muscle and then the formation of energy gets required. In anaerobic respiration the energy gets used by living entities when the oxygen is not present and it can also be stated that the anaerobic respiration takes place when the oxygen is not accessible in huge amount to carry the aerobic respiration process (Keiluweit et al., 2017). In this process the glucose gets broke down without the support of oxygen then the chemical reaction conveys the energy from the glucose to the cells and this process takes place in the cytoplasm of the cells (Flint, 2020). Through the anaerobic respiration lactic and gets developed despite of carbon dioxide and water and this sometimes causes awful muscle pain (Lecomte et al., 2018). In this process the gases don’t get transferred although some gases like nitrogen and sulfur gets set out by the entities. After this process acid, gases, and energy gets set out and through this process only 2 ATP’s are developed.

Type of Respiration by Sprinter

Sprinter means someone who covers a short distance like 100 meters in a fast speed through running (Boccia, 2020). The sprinters deeply depend on the anaerobic respiration and the anaerobic respiration can be increased by modifying the training and lifestyle approaches. In anaerobic respiration the energy gets formed without oxygen and that’s why it is seen that sprinters control their breath while running. Although the anaerobic respiration develops less amount of energy has compare to aerobic but if it’s get incorporated with adrenaline then in result it develops a powerful force of energy. The anaerobic respiration can only be obtain for a short time due to the rise of lactic acid and that’s the reason sprinters use it because they run for a short distance. Although it is necessary for sprinters to stretch after racing or else they can get through severe muscle pain.   

Type of Respiration by Marathon Runner

Marathon runner is someone who participates and covers a long distance in a fast speed through running (Mansour et al., 2017). The marathon runner uses the aerobic respiration process because it develops more energy as in aerobic respiration the energy gets produced through using oxygen. If the marathon runner would use anaerobic respiration then they would get tired even before finishing the race. While running and breathing through aerobic respiration the muscles of the body gets more oxygen from the blood flow that creates energy in the body (Roebuck et al., 2018). The aerobic respiration can be developed by indulging in activities like cycling, distance running, and skiing and that’s the reason that the marathon runner indulges in aerobic respiration process.


The function of lung is really important has it helps the living entities to respire which is an essential process for living. In this report the respiration process has been discussed in detail in which the internal, external, and cellular respiration process has been discussed. Then the aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration have also been discussed in detailed through incorporating the example of sprinters and marathon runner. Through the report it could be understood that the sprinters uses the anaerobic respiration process and the marathon runners uses the aerobic respiration process because it is beneficial for them to reach the success. 

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