Examination of Openness to Experience Based on Gender Differences of The Participants

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Examination of Openness to Experience Based on Gender Differences of The Participants

Introduction

According to Christensen et al. (2018) the big five personality trait is also known as five factor model that is frequent used by the psychologist. According to the five-factor theory the personality of an individuals can be analyzed on the basis of five core factors such as conscientiousness agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience and extraversion. Analysis of personality traits helps the psychologists to understand different aspects of individuals. Specifically, in the proposed study, the personality factor of openness to experience has been selected for the analysis. According to Silvia and Christensen, (2020) openness to experience can be defined as willingness of an individual to try new things and to engage him/herself into the imaginative as well as intellectual activities. In other words, it can be stated that thinking outside the box is known as openness to experience.

Background

Additionally, Hildenbrand et al (2018) conducted a study and stated that the individuals who score high in the openness to experience are artistic and creative. In addition, women are more creative and artistic as compared to men such as they prefer to add value and variety on a certain work. Individuals with high score of openness to experience are curious about various factors such as their surroundings as they prefer to travel and learn new things which can enhance their creativity. In contrast, for the individuals who score low in the openness to experience it can be stated that they just perform their routine work and they are not comfortable to change their surroundings to engage themselves in new things. Additionally, people with low sore for the openness to experience are often practical people and for theme creativity is a difficult task. Khurshid and Khan, (2017) conducted a study to determine the association between gender difference and personality traits. For this purpose, 865 participants were recruited in the survey questionnaire in which the questionnaires were associated with different personality trains among individuals.  the results indicate a positive and strong association between the openness to experience and women.

Research Aim

The study aims to analyse the openness to experience from Big five personality traits among men and women.

Hypothesis

Based on the literature search the has designed following hypothesis;

H0: there is no mean difference in openness to experience among men and women

H1= there is a mean difference in openness to experience among men and women

Methods

The study aims to analyze the openness scores among men and women. Therefore, to achieve the research aims, the study has employed primary research technique in which data has been collected from the individuals with the help of survey questionnaire.

Research design

In order to address the research question, the study has used cross sectional survey design. the reason behind using experimental design is that it enables the researchers to make an inference regarding the research hypothesis with the help of numeric data that has been collected with the help of survey.

Participants

To address the research, question the data has been collected from 131 participants. The sample size of the study is taken as 131, because Kaufman et al., (2016) stated that the large sample size enables the researchers to get comprehensive and reliable results. from the data it can be stated that among 131 participants 74 (56.5%) were female while 57 (43.5 %) were male.  The mean age of the participants involved in the study is 26.56 with the standard deviation of 8.639. and the minimum age of the recruited participant is 17 years while maximum age is 45 years.

Measurements or materials

To anaylyse the relevant information according to research aim, the study has identified the questions which were relevant to creativity was associated with openness to experience such as Christensen et al., (2019) stated that openness to experience as well as conscientiousness are associated with the creative behavior of the individuals. The scoring instruction related to the responses of the participants regarding personality traits can be observed. The response options are coded as 5 being the lowest score on the likert scale while 1 being the highest because reverse coding is considered to be effective such as the negative responses are at high scale while positive are at low scale (Beaty et al., 2018). The questions 5 and 10 of the personality traits are associated with the openness to experience with the value of Cronbach’s alpha 0.039 indicating that internal constancy of data is very weak.

Procedure

The data has been collected with the help of questionnaire which was distributed among the participants. Moreover, all the details of the study were given to the participants and participants were ensured that their personal details have been kept confidential. Additionally, a proper consent was taken from the participants and they were allowed to leave the survey whenever they want no one was forced to participate in the research as per ethical aspects of conducting research.

Results

In order to make inference related to hypothesis statement of study, the collected data has been analyzed with the help of statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test. The results obtained by the analysis are mentioned below.

Descriptive statistics

According toBeaty et al., (2016) descriptive statistics enables the researchers to summaries a large set of data while it does not provide any meaningful insight of research question. From table 1, it can be observed that the mean of female responding to artistic interest is (µ = 3.38. σ = 1.224) while for men it is (µ = 3.32. σ = 1.378).  Moreover, for the imagination and creative behavior it is evident the for female mean score is obtained as (µ = 4.40. σ = 1.040) 4.01 and standard deviation is 1.040 while for men it is obtained as (µ = 3.98. σ = 1.232. The composite means of the variables is obtained as 3.66 with the standard deviation of 0.864.

Independent t-test

The collected data has been analysed with the help of Independent sample t-test which enables the researchers to compare the mean of two independent groups such as to analyse whether there is an existence of statistical evidence that population mean of two independent groups are different or not. From table 1, it can be observed that the values of measures of central tendencies is approximately equal indicating that data is normally distributed. From table 2, it can be stated that group mean difference for artistic nature among men and women is 0.150 and for the active imagination it is 0.031. Additionally, value of t-statistics calculated is less than t-statistics tabulated which is 1.97 indicating that there is no mean difference between man and women for openness to experience.

The mean difference for the openness to experience among male and female can also be observed from figure 1 and 2. Based on the figure 1 and 2 it can be stated that the mean for the openness to experience is slightly different. It can be illustrated that mean difference corresponding to the artistic interest and active imagination are slightly different among men and women and this difference is negotiable. 


Figure 1: openness to experience among female


Figure 2: openness to experience among male

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Discussion

Based on the analysis and results, it can be stated that there is no statistically significant difference between the mean of openness to experience among men and women. The results from independent sample t-test also indicates that there is no difference for the openness to experience among men and women because p-value is greater than 0.05. The results of the study are also supported by previous studies such as Schwaba et al., (2018) conducted a study to analyze the statistically significant difference for openness to experience among men and women. Based on the results, the study stated that there is no statistically significant difference between men and women for openness to experience however, it depends on the interest of the individuals. In addition, Schwaba et al., (2019) conducted a study to evaluate the personality traits among men and women with the help of survey questionnaire. The researchers collected data from 125 participants and analysed with the help of statistical techniques. It can be further stated that there is no difference in the openness to experience among the men and women because personality traits depend on the skills of individuals rather than gender. The study concluded that men and women both have different personality traits it depends on their skills and capabilities that how they respond to certain event or thing. Moreover, Javed et al., (2020) stated that mean value for the openness to experience for male and females is approximately similar therefore based on the slight difference it cannot be stated that women have more openness to experience as compared to women. Additionally, it can be stated that the results of the study are limited because the sample size is small to determine the significant difference for the openness to experience for the men and women the sample should be large as well as it should be selected from different populations. Moreover, the results can be considered as biased because in the sample number of females are high as compared to male. And the questionnaire was based on the all the personality traits however, the study has just analysed two personality trait. Findings of proposed study suggests that the personality traits openness to experience is approximately equal among men and women. Therefore, it can be stated that to have better understanding of the difference between personality traits among men and women all personality traits should be analysed future research.

Conclusion

The study aims to analyse the significant difference between the women and men for the openness to experience. Based on the results and analysis, it can be concluded that there is no statistically significant difference between men and women for the openness to experience, as women scored much higher than men.

 

References

Beaty, R. E., Chen, Q., Christensen, A. P., Qiu, J., Silvia, P. J., & Schacter, D. L. (2018). Brain networks of the imaginative mind: Dynamic functional connectivity of default and cognitive control networks relates to openness to experience. Human brain mapping, 39(2), 811-821

Beaty, R. E., Kaufman, S. B., Benedek, M., Jung, R. E., Kenett, Y. N., Jauk, E., ... & Silvia, P. J. (2016). Personality and complex brain networks: The role of openness to experience in default network efficiency. Human brain mapping, 37(2), 773-779.

Christensen, A. P., Cotter, K. N., & Silvia, P. J. (2019). Reopening openness to experience: A network analysis of four openness to experience inventories. Journal of Personality Assessment, 101(6), 574-588.

Christensen, A. P., Kenett, Y. N., Cotter, K. N., Beaty, R. E., & Silvia, P. J. (2018). Remotely close associations: Openness to experience and semantic memory structure. European Journal of Personality, 32(4), 480-492.

Dubois, J., Galdi, P., Han, Y., Paul, L. K., &Adolphs, R. (2018). Resting-state functional brain connectivity best predicts the personality dimension of openness to experience. Personality neuroscience, 1.

Hildenbrand, K., Sacramento, C. A., &Binnewies, C. (2018). Transformational leadership and burnout: The role of thriving and followers’ openness to experience. Journal of occupational health psychology, 23(1), 31.

Javed, B., Khan, A. K., Arjoon, S., Mashkoor, M., & Haque, A. U. (2020). Openness to experience, ethical leadership, and innovative work behavior. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 54(1), 211-223.

Kaufman, S. B., Quilty, L. C., Grazioplene, R. G., Hirsh, J. B., Gray, J. R., Peterson, J. B., & DeYoung, C. G. (2016). Openness to experience and intellect differentially predict creative achievement in the arts and sciences. Journal of personality, 84(2), 248-258.

Prentice, M., Kasser, T., & Sheldon, K. M. (2018). Openness to experience predicts intrinsic value shifts after deliberating one’s own death. Death studies, 42(4), 205-215.

Schwaba, T., Luhmann, M., Denissen, J. J., Chung, J. M., &Bleidorn, W. (2018). Openness to experience and culture-openness transactions across the lifespan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(1), 118.

Schwaba, T., Robins, R. W., Grijalva, E., &Bleidorn, W. (2019). Does openness to experience matter in love and work? Domain, facet, and developmental evidence from a 24‐year longitudinal study. Journal of personality, 87(5), 1074-1092.

Silvia, P. J., & Christensen, A. P. (2020). Looking up at the curious personality: individual differences in curiosity and openness to experience. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 35, 1-6.

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Appendix

Table 1: Descriptive statistics

Descriptives

 

Gender

Statistic

Std. Error

I see myself as someone who has few artistic interests

Female

Mean

3.38

.142

N

74

 

Std. Deviation

1.224

 

Skewness

-.631

.279

Kurtosis

-.632

.552

Male

Mean

3.23

.182

N

57

 

Std. Deviation

1.376

 

Skewness

-.257

.316

Kurtosis

-1.234

.623

I see myself as someone who has an active imagination

Female

Mean

4.01

.121

N

74

 

Std. Deviation

1.040

 

Skewness

-.778

.279

Kurtosis

-.253

.552

Male

Mean

3.98

.163

N

 

57

 

Std. Deviation

1.232

 

Skewness

-1.213

.316

Kurtosis

.494

.623

Table 2: Independent Samples Test

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

 

Lower

Upper

 

I see myself as someone who has few artistic interests

Equal variances assumed

2.267

.135

.660

129

.510

.150

.228

-.300

.601

 

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.650

112.905

.517

.150

.231

-.308

.608

 

I see myself as someone who has an active imagination

Equal variances assumed

.376

.541

.156

129

.876

.031

.199

-.362

.424

 

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.153

109.147

.879

.031

.203

-.371

.434

 

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