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Research Report and Data Set Analysis

Introduction

The proposed study aims to analyse the impact of gender, affective commitment as well as continuance commitment on the job performance. According to a study published by Tekingündüz et al., (2017), it can be stated that the continuance and affective commitments are the key factors which contribute to the organizational growth and development. However, it can be observed that most of the researchers claimed that there can be difference in the commitment of the employees based on the gender differences and education. In addition, it is believed that the performance of the employees can vary from gender to gender and different education level of the employees. Therefore, in order to demonstrate that employee affective commitment, continuance commitment, and job performances, the study has collected primary data from 130 participates with the help of survey questionnaire. 

Hypothesis Development

Organizational commitment can be explained as bond of employee’s experience on with the organizations work.  In general, employees who stay with their company often feel connected to the organization, feel cohesive and understand the organizational goals. The value of these employees' is that they are highly productive as well as they always shoe their support and hardworking to meet the organizational goals.

Affective commitment and job performance

Vandenberghe et al., (2004) conducted a study in order to demonstrate the contribution of the affective commitment on the organizational performance. For this purpose, researcher Vandenberghe et al., (2004) collected primary data from 199 employees from different organizations to determine the contribution of the affective commitment on the performance of the employees assuming that the employee performance in the key determinant of the organizational performance.  Based on the analysis of the collected data, the researcher concluded that the affective commitment has a significant impact on the performance of employees. In contrast Devece et al., (2016) argued that there is not contribution of the affective commitment to the performance of the employees.

Hypothesis 1: There is a positive correlation between affective commitment and job performance

Continuance Commitment and Job Performance

According to Harwiki, (2016) continuance commitment is an obligation where employees experience the benefits, investment, costs and reason for leaving the organization, such as time, effort and retirement. In addition, it can be stated that there is a strong as well as mutual relationship between the employees of the organization and management of organization, and effective relationship leads the employees to stick to their organization. Haque et al., (2019) stated that Continuance commitment is not associated with or negatively linked to the job performance and employee’s absenteeism behaviors. A Continuance commitment is positively related to success and quality of work.

Hypothesis 2: Positive correlation between continuance commitment and job performance

Gender and job performance of employees

According to  a study published by Motro and Ellis, (2017), there is a significant increase in the gender gap, as an illustration it can be stated that if it is believed by the women than men are more skillful in problem solving and managing operations and take it a stereotype threat then this factor can negatively influence their work performance.

Hypothesis 3: There would be a positive correlation, males are performing better than women.

Methods, Analysis and Results

The proposed study has developed three hypotheses in order to demonstrate the relationship between affective commitment and continuance commitment with the job performance. In order to make a decision regarding the acceptance or rejection of the hypotheses, the study has collected data from the 130 respondents with the help of survey questionnaire.  The questionnaire included the information regarding the demographic factors such as age, education, and gender. The responses obtained from the questionnaire also contained certain outliers such as age of the one respondent was given as 778 years and one was given as 4 years which is not scientifically possible. In addition to this, false responses such as in the questionnaire for the question regarding gender 1 denotes men, 2 denotes women, 3 denotes no response and on the response for this question was 4 which was not reliable. However, it can be stated that the outliers and irrelevant responses negatively impact the erodibility and validity of the research outcomes therefore, these responses were eliminated from the study.  After eliminating outlier and relatively false responses, the age of the responded falls in the range between 20 to 60 years, the mean age is 35.2 years, with the standard deviation of 9.5 indicating that most of the participants have age around 35 years. Besides the demographic factors, job performance of the employees is taken as the dependent variable while affective commitment, continuance commitment and gender are taken as the independent variables of the study. The dependent and independent variables of the study are scale variables, scaling from 1 to five in which 1 indicating strongly disagree while 5 indicating strongly agree.  Moreover, the source which has been used for the scale dataset for the affective commitment (AC) and continuance commitment (CC) is Finch et al., (2016) however, for the variable of job performance Edelsbrunner et al., (2018) has been used a source for scale.

Furthermore, to determine the internal reliability of data set value of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha (α) was formulated based on the three items which were associated with the job performance. The values of the Cronbach’s alpha corresponding to the affective commitment was obtained as 0.837 which clearly shows that there is effective internal consistency. In contrast, value of Cronbach’s alpha for the continuance commitment is obtained as 0.903 and for the variable of job performance, it is obtained as 0.870 indicating that all variables under study are internally consistent.

In order to make inference regarding the acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis, the study has used statistical technique of Pearson’s correlation. The results which are obtained with the help of correlation between the variables affective commitment and job performance helps to accept the first hypothesis of the study, because vale of coefficient correlation (r) is obtained as 0.373 for n = 127 and p less than 0.01, based on these results, it can be stated that there is a positive correlation between affective commitment and job performance. In contrast, the result of correlation for the variables of continuance commitment and job performance leads to reject the second hypothesis that is there is positive correlation between continuance commitment and job performance because the value or r = -0.182 for n = 127 and p is less than 0.01 indicating that there is negative association between continuance commitment and job performance.

Moreover, in order to analyse the difference in the performance of male and female the study has used a t-test. From the results obtained by t-test, it can be stated that the value of p which is also considered as probability of obtaining test result is obtained as S=0.35. Moreover, value of mean and standard deviation is different between men and women such as for men (M= 3.24 with the standard deviation 1.12), and for women (M= 3.40 with the standard deviation SD= 0.74). The results of the study indicate that the performance of women is better than the performance of men. In addition to this, it can be observed that there is a positive relationship between gender and job performance. However, the results of the study indicate that the performance of women is slightly between than the performance of males which leads to reject the third hypothesis of the study that is there would be a positive correlation, males are performing better than women

Correlations

 

Mean

Standard Deviation

Affective commitment
(AC)

Continuance commitment
(CC)

Job performance

Gender

 

 

-0.016

0.197

0.076

Affective commitment
(AC)

3.15

0.8605

0.837

 

 

Continuance commitment
(CC)

2.28

0.8618

0.387**

0.903

 

Job performance

3.3

0.9972

0.373**

 -0.182 *

0.87

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).



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Discussion and Conclusion

The study aims to analyse the relationship of affective commitment, continuance commitment and gender differences with performance of the employees at job. For this purpose, data from 130 participants by using survey questionnaire techniques was gathered and analysed.  The collected data has been analysed with the help of Pearson’s correlation. The analysis indicates that affective commitment has a positive relationship with job performance while continuance commitment has a negative correlation with the job performance. However, for the gender it is observed that there is a positive correlation between gender and job performance but t-test indicates that the performance of women is better than the men which contradicts with third hypothesis.  The results of the study are also cross validated from, the already published studies such as Ribeiro et al., (2018) conducted a study to analyse the relationship between affective commitment and performance of the employees. For this purpose, the researcher collected data from the 212 employees which the primary quantitative research design. The collected data was analyzed with the help of linear regression. The study concluded that there is a significant positive association between the performance of the employees and affective commitment. In addition, a study conducted by Yousef, (2017) indicates that there is no significant relationship between the gender differences and performance of the employees. However, the performance of the employees can depend on their skills and knowledge.  Moreover, Mitonga-Monga and Flotman, (2017) study of states that the continuance commitment of the employees in not related to their performance, however it can enhance the satisfaction of the employees.     


References

Banerjee, T., 2019. Designing a primary survey-based research. In Research Methodology for Social Sciences (pp. 167-180). Routledge India.

Devece, C., Palacios-Marqués, D. and Alguacil, M.P., 2016. Organizational commitment and its effects on organizational citizenship behavior in a high-unemployment environment. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), pp.1857-1861.

DINC, M.S. and PLAKALOVIC, V., 2016. Impact of caring climate, job satisfaction, and affective commitment on employees’ performance in the banking sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Eurasian Journal of Business and Economics, 9(18), pp.1-16.

Edelsbrunner, P.A., Schalk, L., Schumacher, R. and Stern, E., 2018. Variable control and conceptual change: A large-scale quantitative study in elementary school. Learning and Individual Differences, 66, pp.38-53.

Finch, W.H., Finch, M.E.H. and Singh, M., 2016. Data imputation algorithms for mixed variable types in large scale educational assessment: a comparison of random forest, multivariate imputation using chained equations, and MICE with recursive partitioning. International Journal of Quantitative Research in Education, 3(3), pp.129-153.

Haque, A., Fernando, M. and Caputi, P., 2019. Responsible leadership, affective commitment and intention to quit: an individual level analysis. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

Harwiki, W., 2016. The impact of servant leadership on organization culture, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and employee performance in women cooperatives. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219(1), pp.283-290.

Li, X. and Chu, S.K., 2018. Using design-based research methodology to develop a pedagogy for teaching and learning of Chinese writing with wiki among Chinese upper primary school students. Computers & Education, 126, pp.359-375.

Mitonga-Monga, J. and Flotman, A.P., 2017. Gender and work ethics culture as predictors of employees’ organisational commitment. Journal of Contemporary Management, 14(1), pp.270-290.

Motro, D. and Ellis, A.P., 2017. Boys, don’t cry: Gender and reactions to negative performance feedback. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(2), p.227.

Quinlan, C., Babin, B., Carr, J. and Griffin, M., 2019. Business research methods. South Western Cengage.

Ribeiro, N., Gomes, D. and Kurian, S., 2018. Authentic leadership and performance: the mediating role of employees’ affective commitment. Social Responsibility Journal.

Tekingündüz, S., Top, M., Tengilimoğlu, D. and Karabulut, E., 2017. Effect of organisational trust, job satisfaction, individual variables on the organisational commitment in healthcare services. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 28(5-6), pp.522-541.

Vandenberghe, C., Bentein, K. and Stinglhamber, F., 2004. Affective commitment to the organization, supervisor, and work group: Antecedents and outcomes. Journal of vocational behavior, 64(1), pp.47-71.

Yousef, D.A., 2017. Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and attitudes toward organizational change: A study in the local government. International Journal of Public Administration, 40(1), pp.77-88.

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